docker基本操作

image
Docker 是一个开源的应用容器引擎,基于 Go 语言 并遵从Apache2.0协议开源。
Docker 可以让开发者打包他们的应用以及依赖包到一个轻量级、可移植的容器中,然后发布到任何流行的 Linux 机器上,也可以实现虚拟化。

容器相关操作

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docker create # 创建一个容器但是不启动它
docker run # 创建并启动一个容器
docker stop # 停止容器运行,发送信号SIGTERM
docker start # 启动一个停止状态的容器
docker restart # 重启一个容器
docker rm # 删除一个容器
docker kill # 发送信号给容器,默认SIGKILL
docker attach # 连接(进入)到一个正在运行的容器
docker wait # 阻塞到一个容器,直到容器停止运行

获取容器相关操作

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docker ps # 显示状态为运行(Up)的容器
docker ps -a # 显示所有容器,包括运行中(Up)的和退出的(Exited)
docker inspect # 深入容器内部获取容器所有信息
docker logs # 查看容器的日志(stdout/stderr)
docker events # 得到docker服务器的实时的事件
docker port # 显示容器的端口映射
docker top # 显示容器的进程信息
docker diff # 显示容器文件系统的前后变化

导出容器

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docker cp # 从容器里向外拷贝文件或目录
docker export # 将容器整个文件系统导出为一个tar包,不带layers、tag等信息

执行

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docker exec # 在容器里执行一个命令,可以执行bash进入交互式

镜像操作

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docker images # 显示本地所有的镜像列表
docker import # 从一个tar包创建一个镜像,往往和export结合使用
docker build # 使用Dockerfile创建镜像(推荐)
docker commit # 从容器创建镜像
docker rmi # 删除一个镜像
docker load # 从一个tar包创建一个镜像,和save配合使用
docker save # 将一个镜像保存为一个tar包,带layers和tag信息
docker history # 显示生成一个镜像的历史命令
docker tag # 为镜像起一个别名

镜像仓库操作

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docker login # 登录到一个registry
docker search # 从registry仓库搜索镜像
docker pull # 从仓库下载镜像到本地
docker push # 将一个镜像push到registry仓库中

杀死所有正在运行的容器

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docker kill $(docker ps -q)

删除已经停止的容器

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docker rm `docker ps -a -q`

docker run 命令

Usage: docker run [OPTIONS] IMAGE [COMMAND] [ARG...]

常用 options 说明:

  • -a stdin: 指定标准输入输出内容类型,可选 STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR 三项;
  • -d: 后台运行容器,并返回容器ID;
  • -i: 以交互模式运行容器,通常与 -t 同时使用;
  • -P: 随机端口映射,容器内部端口随机映射到主机的高端口
  • -p: 指定端口映射,格式为:主机(宿主)端口:容器端口
  • -t: 为容器重新分配一个伪输入终端,通常与 -i 同时使用;
  • –name=”nginx-lb”: 为容器指定一个名称;
  • –dns 8.8.8.8: 指定容器使用的DNS服务器,默认和宿主一致;
  • –dns-search example.com: 指定容器DNS搜索域名,默认和宿主一致;
  • -h “mars”: 指定容器的hostname;
  • -e username=”ritchie”: 设置环境变量;
  • –env-file=[]: 从指定文件读入环境变量;
  • –cpuset=”0-2” or –cpuset=”0,1,2”: 绑定容器到指定CPU运行;
  • -m :设置容器使用内存最大值;
  • –net=”bridge”: 指定容器的网络连接类型,支持 bridge/host/none/container: 四种类型;
  • –link=[]: 添加链接到另一个容器;
  • –expose=[]: 开放一个端口或一组端口;
  • –volume , -v: 绑定一个卷
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Usage:	docker run [OPTIONS] IMAGE [COMMAND] [ARG...]

Run a command in a new container

Options:
--add-host list Add a custom host-to-IP mapping (host:ip)
-a, --attach list Attach to STDIN, STDOUT or STDERR
--blkio-weight uint16 Block IO (relative weight), between 10 and 1000, or 0 to disable (default 0)
--blkio-weight-device list Block IO weight (relative device weight) (default [])
--cap-add list Add Linux capabilities
--cap-drop list Drop Linux capabilities
--cgroup-parent string Optional parent cgroup for the container
--cidfile string Write the container ID to the file
--cpu-count int CPU count (Windows only)
--cpu-percent int CPU percent (Windows only)
--cpu-period int Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period
--cpu-quota int Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota
--cpu-rt-period int Limit CPU real-time period in microseconds
--cpu-rt-runtime int Limit CPU real-time runtime in microseconds
-c, --cpu-shares int CPU shares (relative weight)
--cpus decimal Number of CPUs
--cpuset-cpus string CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
--cpuset-mems string MEMs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
-d, --detach Run container in background and print container ID
--detach-keys string Override the key sequence for detaching a container
--device list Add a host device to the container
--device-cgroup-rule list Add a rule to the cgroup allowed devices list
--device-read-bps list Limit read rate (bytes per second) from a device (default [])
--device-read-iops list Limit read rate (IO per second) from a device (default [])
--device-write-bps list Limit write rate (bytes per second) to a device (default [])
--device-write-iops list Limit write rate (IO per second) to a device (default [])
--disable-content-trust Skip image verification (default true)
--dns list Set custom DNS servers
--dns-option list Set DNS options
--dns-search list Set custom DNS search domains
--entrypoint string Overwrite the default ENTRYPOINT of the image
-e, --env list Set environment variables
--env-file list Read in a file of environment variables
--expose list Expose a port or a range of ports
--group-add list Add additional groups to join
--health-cmd string Command to run to check health
--health-interval duration Time between running the check (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
--health-retries int Consecutive failures needed to report unhealthy
--health-start-period duration Start period for the container to initialize before starting health-retries countdown (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
--health-timeout duration Maximum time to allow one check to run (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
--help Print usage
-h, --hostname string Container host name
--init Run an init inside the container that forwards signals and reaps processes
-i, --interactive Keep STDIN open even if not attached
--io-maxbandwidth bytes Maximum IO bandwidth limit for the system drive (Windows only)
--io-maxiops uint Maximum IOps limit for the system drive (Windows only)
--ip string IPv4 address (e.g., 172.30.100.104)
--ip6 string IPv6 address (e.g., 2001:db8::33)
--ipc string IPC mode to use
--isolation string Container isolation technology
--kernel-memory bytes Kernel memory limit
-l, --label list Set meta data on a container
--label-file list Read in a line delimited file of labels
--link list Add link to another container
--link-local-ip list Container IPv4/IPv6 link-local addresses
--log-driver string Logging driver for the container
--log-opt list Log driver options
--mac-address string Container MAC address (e.g., 92:d0:c6:0a:29:33)
-m, --memory bytes Memory limit
--memory-reservation bytes Memory soft limit
--memory-swap bytes Swap limit equal to memory plus swap: '-1' to enable unlimited swap
--memory-swappiness int Tune container memory swappiness (0 to 100) (default -1)
--mount mount Attach a filesystem mount to the container
--name string Assign a name to the container
--network string Connect a container to a network (default "default")
--network-alias list Add network-scoped alias for the container
--no-healthcheck Disable any container-specified HEALTHCHECK
--oom-kill-disable Disable OOM Killer
--oom-score-adj int Tune host's OOM preferences (-1000 to 1000)
--pid string PID namespace to use
--pids-limit int Tune container pids limit (set -1 for unlimited)
--platform string Set platform if server is multi-platform capable
--privileged Give extended privileges to this container
-p, --publish list Publish a container's port(s) to the host
-P, --publish-all Publish all exposed ports to random ports
--read-only Mount the container's root filesystem as read only
--restart string Restart policy to apply when a container exits (default "no")
--rm Automatically remove the container when it exits
--runtime string Runtime to use for this container
--security-opt list Security Options
--shm-size bytes Size of /dev/shm
--sig-proxy Proxy received signals to the process (default true)
--stop-signal string Signal to stop a container (default "SIGTERM")
--stop-timeout int Timeout (in seconds) to stop a container
--storage-opt list Storage driver options for the container
--sysctl map Sysctl options (default map[])
--tmpfs list Mount a tmpfs directory
-t, --tty Allocate a pseudo-TTY
--ulimit ulimit Ulimit options (default [])
-u, --user string Username or UID (format: <name|uid>[:<group|gid>])
--userns string User namespace to use
--uts string UTS namespace to use
-v, --volume list Bind mount a volume
--volume-driver string Optional volume driver for the container
--volumes-from list Mount volumes from the specified container(s)
-w, --workdir string Working directory inside the container
咸鱼也要有梦想,万一实现了呢
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